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"There were two basic ways in which European powers and settlers dealt with indigenous resistance to colonisation. The first was to subdue, disposess or destroy the colonised militarily, as happened with the San under VOC rule. The second was to try and convert the colonised to Western models of living and thinking, as the British attempted to do. The former strove for the death of San society in a literal sense, through killing, expropriation, and enslavement, while the latter did so through a programme of deracination and acculturation, for to expunge their way of life was to obliterate the San. Whereas Dutch colonialism became exterminationist, and therefore genocidal, in its relations with the San, British colonial policy could be described as eliminationist and ethnocidal in outlook, its implementation not necessarily putting an end to state violence against the San or changing the genocidal mindset of the frontiersmen. For the British, the fundamental step in eliminating the San both as menace and as ‘savage’ was to turn them into pastoralists and labourers. San were therefore encouraged to become herders, not only because it was regarded as appropriate for that natural environment but because stock-keeping was seen as the next step up in the evolutionary ladder from hunter-gathering."

— Mohamed Adhikari, The Anatomy of a South Africa Genocide, pp. 61-62.